Flavonoids


Article Outline
  1. 1. Citrus Flavonoids
    1. 1.1. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN)
      1. 1.1.1. Pharmacological / Properties of 8-PN and its Therapeutic Applications
    2. 1.2. Cosmosiin
    3. 1.3. Diosmin
    4. 1.4. Didymin
    5. 1.5. Hesperetin
    6. 1.6. Hesperidin
      1. 1.6.1. Natural Sources
    7. 1.7. Isosinensetin
    8. 1.8. Naringenin
    9. 1.9. Naringin
    10. 1.10. Neohesperidin
    11. 1.11. Nobiletin
    12. 1.12. Poncirin
    13. 1.13. Quercetin
    14. 1.14. Rhoifolin
    15. 1.15. Rutin
    16. 1.16. Sinensetin
    17. 1.17. Sudachitin
    18. 1.18. Tangeretin
    19. 1.19. Xanthohumol
Keywords:

Flavonoids are the most diverse group of phytochemicals.

Flavonoids are divided into six classes:

  • Flavanols (flavan-3-ol)
  • Flavanones
  • Flavones
  • Flavonols
  • Isoflavonoids
  • Anthocyanidins

Citrus Flavonoids

8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN)

!!! warning “” Precaution: 8-Prenylnaringenin is a phytoestrogen. It is reported to be the most estrogenic phytoestrogen known.

8-prenylnaringenin is a natural compound, structurally belonging to the group of prenylated flavonoids,

It is notable compound in Hops (Humulus lupulus L.), a key ingredient for beer brewing.

Pharmacological / Properties of 8-PN and its Therapeutic Applications

Due to its estrogenic effects, 8-PN represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms that occur as a consequence of a progressive decline in hormone levels in women.[1]

Application of 8-PN in the treatment of menopause has been clinically examined with promising results.[1:1]

Other activities that have already been assessed include the potential to prevent bone-resorption or inhibition of tumor growth.[1:2]

Cosmosiin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Diosmin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Didymin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Hesperetin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Hesperidin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Natural Sources

  • Citrus aurantium L. - Bitter Orange, Petitgrain
    • Petitgrain is an essential oil that is extracted from the leaves and green twigs of the bitter orange tree via steam distillation. It is also known as petitgrain bigarade.
  • Orange juice (Citrus sinensis)
  • Zanthoxylum gilletii
    • aka the East African satinwood, is a tree species in the genus Zanthoxylum found in Africa. The fruits are used to produce the spice uzazi.
  • lemon
  • lime
  • leaves of Agathosma serratifolia
  • Peppermint
  • blood orange
  • grapefruit

Isosinensetin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Naringenin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Naringin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Neohesperidin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Nobiletin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Poncirin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Quercetin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Rhoifolin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Rutin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Sinensetin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Sudachitin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Tangeretin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Xanthohumol

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Title: Therapeutic Perspectives of 8-Prenylnaringenin, a Potent Phytoestrogen from Hops
Publication: MDPI Journal - Molecules
Date: March 2018
Study Type: Human: Case Review
Author(s): Kateřina Štulíková, Marcel Karabín, Jakub Nešpor, and Pavel Dostálek
Institution(s): Department of Biotechnology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague
Abstract: Hop (Humulus lupulus L.), as a key ingredient for beer brewing, is also a source of many biologically active molecules. A notable compound, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), structurally belonging to the group of prenylated flavonoids, was shown to be a potent phytoestrogen, and thus, became the topic of active research. Here, we overview the pharmacological properties of 8-PN and its therapeutic opportunities. Due to its estrogenic effects, administration of 8-PN represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms that occur as a consequence of a progressive decline in hormone levels in women. Application of 8-PN in the treatment of menopause has been clinically examined with promising results. Other activities that have already been assessed include the potential to prevent bone-resorption or inhibition of tumor growth. On the other hand, the use of phytoestrogens is frequently questioned regarding possible adverse effects associated with long-term consumption. In conclusion, we emphasize the implications of using 8-PN in future treatments of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms, including the need for precise evidence and further investigations to define the safety risks related to its therapeutic use.
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