Pea Protein


Article Outline
  1. 1. Composition
  2. 2. Preparation
  3. 3. Healing Properties
    1. 3.1. Antioxidant
    2. 3.2. Chelation
    3. 3.3. Bone Health
    4. 3.4. ACE Inhibitor
  4. 4. Disease / Symptom Treatment
    1. 4.1. Hypertension
Keywords: ,

Pea protein isolate (PPI) is a dietary supplement created by separating out the other components from peas and extracting the protein fragments, making them into a heterogenous powder. Peas are the pod fruit from the Pisum sativum plant (most common).

Composition

Preparation

Healing Properties

Antioxidant

Phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity are present in the seed coat and cotyledon of peas.[1]

The antioxidant activity of pea protein-derived peptides represents improved linoleic acid oxidation inhibition.[1:1]

Chelation

Pea protein-derived peptides have demonstrated metal chelating capacity.[1:2]

Bone Health

Research has demonstrated the presence of bioactive peptides in pea protein that can positively modulate the activity of osteoblasts, indicating the potential of pea derived peptides for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.[1:3]

ACE Inhibitor

(Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor)

ACE Inhibitors are used for the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure. They work by causing relaxation of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood volume, which leads to lower blood pressure and decreased oxygen demand from the heart.

“Blood pressure in the human body is regulated by the renin-angiotensin system in which angiotensin II acts as a vasoconstrictor with renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme as two important enzymes.[1:4]

Two fractions extracted from pea protein showed a significant ACE inhibitory property indicating the ability of pea protein derived peptide in treating hypertension.[1:5]

Disease / Symptom Treatment

Hypertension

Two fractions extracted from pea protein showed a significant ACE inhibitory property indicating the ability of pea protein derived peptide in treating hypertension.[1:6]


  1. Title: Pea Protein Derived Bioactive Peptides Stimulate Bone Health Promoting Effects
    Publication: University of Alberta Libraries
    Date: Spring 2020
    Study Type: Thesis: Human Study: In Vitro
    Author(s): Harshita Arora
    Institution(s): Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science University of Alberta
    Abstract: Osteoporosis is a bone disease affecting 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men in Canada. One possible approach to prevent this disease is to stimulate the activity of osteoblasts (bone forming cells) using food derived bioactive peptides. As a sought-after pea protein, we previously identified a tripeptide LRW (Leu-Arg-Trp). Therefore, the 1st objective of this thesis was to investigate the effect of LRW on promoting osteoblastic activity using pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. LRW treatment (50 µM) caused a significant increase in cell proliferation (4-fold increase), stimulated differentiation by increased the levels of type 1 collagen (COL1 A2; 3-fold increase), alkaline phosphatase (2-fold increase), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2; 2-fold increase), as well as promoted mineralization evidenced by Alizarin-S red staining and nodule formation. LRW treatment also and increased osteoprotegrin levels (OPG; 2-fold increase), thereby decreasing bone resorption. Furthermore, LRW also significantly increased the wound healing based on cell migration assay. Since LRW was identified from pea protein hydrolysate, the second objective of the thesis was to determine the osteoblastic activity of pea protein hydrolysates using human osteoblast cells (U-2OS). Among seven pea protein hydrolysates prepared, three (prepared by chymotrypsin, alcalase and thermolysin, respectively) showed better ability to increase the level of COL1 A2 and thus selected for further study. Pea protein hydrolysate up-regulated COL1 A2 (2-fold increase), procollagen (1.25-fold increase), nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor 2 levels (NRF2; 1.35-fold increase), C-X-Chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4; 2-fold increase) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3; 1.5-fold increase) in alcalase prepared hydrolysate. Furthermore, increased mRNA and protein expression of STAT3 (3.5-fold increase) and CXCR4 (4-fold increase) respectively in alcalase prepared sample were further validated by qRT-PCR. Pea protein hydrolysate also decreased the levels of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1 and MMP-9, indicating the inhibitory role on the degradation of bone matrix. This research demonstrated the presence of bioactive peptides in pea protein that can positively modulate the activity of osteoblasts, indicating the potential of pea derived peptides for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.
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