Polyphenols


Article Outline
  1. 1. Anthocyanins
  2. 2. Flavonoids
    1. 2.1. Catechins
      1. 2.1.1. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
  3. 3. Ellagic acid
  4. 4. Proanthocyanidins
  5. 5. Pterostilbene (PSB)
  6. 6. Resveratrol
  7. 7. Healing Properties
    1. 7.1. Antioxidant
    2. 7.2. Anti‐inflammatory
    3. 7.3. Anti‐carcinogenic (anticancer)
    4. 7.4. Digestion
      1. 7.4.1. Prebiotic
Keywords:

Polyphenols are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals. They are considered micronutrients.

Anthocyanins

Flavonoids

Catechins

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)

Ellagic acid

Proanthocyanidins

Pterostilbene (PSB)

Pterostilbene (PSB) (3′,5′‐dimethoxy‐resveratrol), a Resveratrol‐related polyphenol found in blueberries, was identified. PSB has a higher bioavailability than Reveratrol due to the presence of two methoxy groups that increase its lipophilic and oral absorption.[1]

Resveratrol

Healing Properties

Antioxidant

Anti‐inflammatory

Anti‐carcinogenic (anticancer)

Digestion

Prebiotic

Polyphenols have prebiotic effects; stimulate the growth of healthy gut microorganisms and increase production of Short Chain Fatty Acids.[2]

Consumption of polyphenols, especially catechins, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, increases the abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Roseburia, and Faecalibacterium spp. Moreover, polyphenols supplementation increased the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including butyrate. The clinical trials showed an increased abundance of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium spp., and a reduction in plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein after the consumption of anthocyanins and ellagic acid. In conclusion, there is strong evidence in preclinical studies that dietary polyphenols can stimulate both the growth of microorganisms identified as prebiotic targets and an increase in the production of SCFA.[2:1]

Title: Prebiotic effect of dietary polyphenols: A systematic review
Publication: Journal of Functional Foods
Date: September 2020
Study Type: Animal Study: In Vivo
Author(s): Aline Medeiros Alves-Santos, Clara Sandra Araújo Sugizaki, Glaucia Carielo Lima, Maria Margareth Veloso Naves
Institution(s): School of Nutrition, Federal University of Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
Abstract: Prebiotics are substrates selectively metabolized by hindgut microorganisms conferring health benefits. Recent studies suggest polyphenols as candidate to prebiotics. Thus, this systematic review aimed to investigate the prebiotic effect of dietary polyphenols in preclinical and clinical studies. Animal studies demonstrated that the consumption of polyphenols, especially catechins, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, increases the abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Roseburia, and Faecalibacterium spp. Moreover, polyphenols supplementation increased the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including butyrate. The included clinical trials showed an increased abundance of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium spp., and a reduction in plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein after the consumption of anthocyanins and ellagic acid. In conclusion, there is strong evidence in preclinical studies that dietary polyphenols can stimulate both the growth of microorganisms identified as prebiotic targets and an increase in the production of SCFA. Therefore, clinical trials are warranted to investigate the prebiotic effect of dietary polyphenols on humans.
IPFS Link

Title: Pterostilbene reduces colonic inflammation by suppressing dendritic cell activation and promoting regulatory T cell development
Publication: The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Date: September 2020
Study Type: Human Study: In Vitro
Author(s): Takuya Yashiro, Shiori Yura, Akari Tobita, Yuki Toyoda, Kazumi Kasakura, Chiharu Nishiyama
Institution(s): Department of Biological Science and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan;
Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells play important roles in immune regulation, and modulating their function is an approach for developing preventive or therapeutic strategies against immune disorders. Herein, the effect of pterostilbene (PSB) (3′,5′‐dimethoxy‐resveratrol)—a resveratrol‐related polyphenol found in blueberries—on immune regulation was evaluated. Using an in vitro co‐culture system, PSB was found to exert the strongest inhibitory effect among all tested resveratrol derivatives on DC‐mediated T cell proliferation; moreover, PSB treatment decreased the Th1 and Th17 populations and increased the regulatory T cell (Treg) population. Upon co‐stimulation with anti‐CD3 and anti‐CD28 antibodies, PSB inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and differentiation into Th1 cells. Additionally, PSB acted on DCs to suppress the lipopolysaccharide‐induced transactivation of genes encoding antigen presentation‐related molecules and inflammatory cytokines by attenuating the DNA‐binding ability of the transcription factor PU.1. Furthermore, PSB promoted DC‐mediated Foxp3+ Treg differentiation, and PU.1 knockdown increased DC‐induced Treg activity. Oral administration of PSB alleviated the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium‐induced colitis and decreased tumor necrosis factor‐α expression in mice. Thus, PSB treatment ameliorates colonic inflammation.
IPFS Link


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