Rhodiola Rosea


Article Outline
  1. 1. Composition
  2. 2. Healing Properties
    1. 2.1. Anti-hypoxia
      1. 2.1.1. Exercise
    2. 2.2. Muscle Health
    3. 2.3. Brain Health
      1. 2.3.1. Neuroprotective
      2. 2.3.2. Myelination
        1. 2.3.2.1. Apoptotic regulation
    4. 2.4. Circulation
  3. 3. Disease / Symptom Treatment

Rhodiola Rosea (golden root, rose root, roseroot, Aaron’s rod, Arctic root, king’s crown, lignum rhodium, orpin rose) is a perennial flowering plant in the family Crassulaceae. It grows naturally in wild Arctic regions of Europe (including Britain), Asia, and North America, and can be propagated as a groundcover.

Composition

Rhodioloside is one of the main active components of Rhodiola rosea.[1]

Salidroside (SLDS) is a phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from the root of Rhodiola rosea L and is one of the main active ingredients of this plant.[2]

Healing Properties

Anti-hypoxia

Exercise

Ginseng can be used to improve physical performance.[3]

Ginseng may be used to minimize the stress promoted by the practice of physical exercises.[3:1]

Muscle Health

Ginseng produced a significant reduction in the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) after physical stress.[3:2]

  • CPK and LDH are associated with muscle tissue breakdown.

Brain Health

Neuroprotective

Rhodioloside extracted from Rhodiola exerts a protective effect on the neural system.[1:1]

  • Rhodioloside achieves its function of neuroprotection through several approaches.[1:2]

Salidroside extracted from the root of Rhodiola significantly reduced cerebral infarction and improved neurological function after cerebral ischemia.[2:1]

Salidroside treatment reduced the expression of M1 microglia/macrophage markers and increased the expression of M2 microglia/macrophage markers after stroke and induced primary microglia from M1 phenotype to M2 phenotype.[2:2]

Salidroside treatment enhanced microglial phagocytosis and suppressed microglial-derived inflammatory cytokine release.[2:3]

Myelination

Cocultures of oligodendrocytes and Salidroside-treated M1 microglia resulted in increased oligodendrocyte differentiation.[2:4]

Oligodendrocytesa are a type of large glial cell found in the central nervous system. Involved in myelination: Oligodendrocytes produce the myelin sheath insulating neuronal axons.

Moreover, SLDS protected neurons against oxygen glucose deprivation by promoting microglial M2 polarization.

Apoptotic regulation

Rhodioloside has anti-apoptotic effects which can provide a neuroprotective effect against total cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.[1:3]

Method of action: Rhodioloside blocks neuronal apoptosis pathways and inhibits neuronal apoptosis through interfering with p53 and Bcl-2/Bax protein expression.[1:4]

Rhodioloside was shown to reduce neurological deficit scores and increase neuronal survival rate of rats with total cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.[1:5]

Circulation

Disease / Symptom Treatment


  1. Title: Effects of rhodioloside on the neurological functions of rats with total cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and cone neuron injury in the hippocampal CA1 region
    Publication: PeerJ: Life & Environment
    Date: November 2020
    Study Type: Animal Study: In Vitro
    Author(s): Yue Zhang, Xinqing Guo, Guohua Wang, Jidan Liu, Peiyu Liang, Huan Wang, Chunyan Zhu​, Qiong Wu​
    Institutions: Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China; Heze Medical College, Heze, China; Qinghai University, Xining, China; Municipal hospital of Heze, Shandong, China
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  2. Title: Salidroside provides neuroprotection by modulating microglial polarization after cerebral ischemia
    Publication: Journal of Neuroinflammation
    Date: February 2018
    Study Type: Animal Study: In Vitro - In Vivo
    Author(s): Xiangrong Liu, Shaohong Wen, Feng Yan, Kuan Liu, Liqiang Liu, Lei Wang, Shangfeng Zhao, & Xunming Ji
    Institutions: Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine for Cerebrovascular Diseases, Beijing, China
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  3. Title: Effects of Rhodiola rosea on the Metabolic Parameters of Rats Submitted to Swimming
    Publication: Journal of Medicinal Food
    Date: October 2019
    Study Type: Animal Study: In Vitro - In Vivo, Review
    Author(s): Victor Myung Joon Bang, Ana Luisa de Carvalho Aranão, Bruna Zampieri Nogueira, Adriano Cressoni Araújo, Patricia Cincotto dos Santos Bueno, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Maricelma da Silva Soares de Souza, and Elen Landgraf Guiguer
    Institutions: University of Marılia (UNIMAR), Marılia–Brazil, Brazil; Faculty of Food Technology of Marılia, Marı´lia, Sao Paulo–Brazil
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