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What are Flavonoids?

Last Updated May 3rd 2022, 12:41:16 am

Flavonoids are the most diverse group of phytochemicals.

Flavonoids are divided into six classes:

  • Flavanols (flavan-3-ol)
  • Flavanones
  • Flavones
  • Flavonols
  • Isoflavonoids
  • Anthocyanidins

Citrus Flavonoids

8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN)

8-Prenylnaringenin is a phytoestrogen. It is reported to be the most estrogenic phytoestrogen known.

8-prenylnaringenin is a natural compound, structurally belonging to the group of prenylated flavonoids.

It is notable compound in Hops (Humulus lupulus L.), a key ingredient for beer brewing.

Due to its estrogenic effects, 8-PN represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms that occur as a consequence of a progressive decline in hormone levels in women.[1]

Application of 8-PN in the treatment of menopause has been clinically examined with promising results.[1:1]

Other activities that have already been assessed include the potential to prevent bone-resorption or inhibition of tumor growth.[1:2]

Cosmosiin

Diosmin

Didymin

Hesperetin

Hesperidin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Natural Sources

  • Citrus aurantium L. - Bitter Orange, Petitgrain
    • Petitgrain is an essential oil that is extracted from the leaves and green twigs of the bitter orange tree via steam distillation. It is also known as petitgrain bigarade.
  • Orange juice (Citrus sinensis)
  • Zanthoxylum gilletii
    • aka the East African satinwood, is a tree species in the genus Zanthoxylum found in Africa. The fruits are used to produce the spice uzazi.
  • lemon
  • lime
  • leaves of Agathosma serratifolia
  • Peppermint
  • blood orange
  • grapefruit

Isosinensetin

Naringenin

Naringin

Neohesperidin

Nobiletin

Poncirin

Quercetin

Rhoifolin

Rutin

Sinensetin

Sudachitin

Tangeretin

Xanthohumol


  1. Title: Therapeutic Perspectives of 8-Prenylnaringenin, a Potent Phytoestrogen from Hops
    Publication: MDPI Journal - Molecules
    Date: March 2018
    Study Type: Human: Case Review
    Author(s): Kateřina Štulíková, Marcel Karabín, Jakub Nešpor, and Pavel Dostálek
    Institution(s): Department of Biotechnology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague
    Abstract: Hop (Humulus lupulus L.), as a key ingredient for beer brewing, is also a source of many biologically active molecules. A notable compound, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), structurally belonging to the group of prenylated flavonoids, was shown to be a potent phytoestrogen, and thus, became the topic of active research. Here, we overview the pharmacological properties of 8-PN and its therapeutic opportunities. Due to its estrogenic effects, administration of 8-PN represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms that occur as a consequence of a progressive decline in hormone levels in women. Application of 8-PN in the treatment of menopause has been clinically examined with promising results. Other activities that have already been assessed include the potential to prevent bone-resorption or inhibition of tumor growth. On the other hand, the use of phytoestrogens is frequently questioned regarding possible adverse effects associated with long-term consumption. In conclusion, we emphasize the implications of using 8-PN in future treatments of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms, including the need for precise evidence and further investigations to define the safety risks related to its therapeutic use.
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