Green Tea


Article Outline
  1. 1. Healing Properties
    1. 1.1. Antioxidant
    2. 1.2. Skin Health
      1. 1.2.1. UV Protection
    3. 1.3. Anti-Obesity
      1. 1.3.1. Anorexigenic
    4. 1.4. Brain Health
      1. 1.4.1. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (Anticholinesterase)
    5. 1.5. Cardioprotective
      1. 1.5.1. Endothelial Health
    6. 1.6. Skin Health
      1. 1.6.1. Collagen Production
      2. 1.6.2. Hyperpigmentation
  2. 2. Disease / Symptom Treatment
    1. 2.1. Diabetes
      1. 2.1.1. Glucose Regulation
    2. 2.2. Infections
    3. 2.3. Heart Disease
      1. 2.3.1. Cardiomyapthy
    4. 2.4. Obesity
    5. 2.5. Skin Disease
      1. 2.5.1. Skin Cancer
      2. 2.5.2. Keloids

Green Tea (Camellia sinensis)

Healing Properties

Antioxidant

Green Tea contains antioxidants.[1]

Phenolics in green tea extract, including EGCG, ECG, EGC, EC, and gallic acid, may synergistically act on the antioxidant activity via chelating redox-active transition metal ions and scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.[2]

Skin Health

UV Protection

Green tea polyphenols were shown to reduce UV light-induced oxidative stress and immunosuppression.[1:1]

Topical treatment and oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibits chemical carcinogen-or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis.[1:2]

Anti-Obesity

Anorexigenic

Reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.[3]

  • EGCG & caffeine induces not only suppression of fat accumulation but also strong anorexigenic action.
  • The anorexigenic effect may be brought about via inhibiting gastric motility.
  • The combination of EGCG also suppresses body weight gain and fat accumulation.[3:1]

Brain Health

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (Anticholinesterase)

Green tea is known for its high content in tannins.

The tannins in green tea have been shown to greatly inhibit Acetylcholinesterase activity.[4]

  • Acetylcholine is a chemical messenger in the brain and Acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine.
  • Green Tea tannins inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increases both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.[4:1]
  • There is a strong positive correlation between anticholinesterase activity and total condensed tannins.[4:2]

Cardioprotective

Green Tea Extract Improves Heart Muscle and May Help Treat Cardiomyopathies by Improving Mitochondrial Function.[5] [6]

Long-term in vivo administration of green tea catechin extract (GTE) resulted in an improvement of heart cell mechanical properties.

  • This was measured by a significant increase in hyperdynamic cardiomyocyte contractility (an increase in the rate of shortening and re-lengthening of heart muscle cells, more specifically the fraction of shortening due to the amplitude of calcium transient, and the rate of cytosolic calcium removal).

Green Tea Extract supplementation has been shown to improve cardiomyocyte mechanics and intracellular calcium dynamics.

Cellular bioenergetics were found to be significantly improved:

  • This study measured the maximal mitochondrial respiration rate and the cellular ATP level.
    • The improvement of mitochondrial function was associated with increased levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes.
    • The cellular mitochondrial mass was unchanged.
    • Mechanism of action: Green Tea Extract supplementation lowerered the expression of total phospholamban (PLB), which led to an increase of both the phosphorylated-PLB/PLB and the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase/PLB ratios.

Green Tea Extract might be a valuable adjuvant tool for counteracting the occurrence and/or the progression of cardiomyopathies in which mitochondrial dysfunction and alteration of intracellular calcium dynamics constitute early pathogenic factors.

Endothelial Health

The molecule EGCG has the ability to bind to proteins found in plaques linked to coronary artery disease and make them more soft and pliable making it easier for blood to flow through arteries and veins.[4:3]

Skin Health

Green Tea’s Anti-skin aging activities are three-fold[2:1]

Green tea extract (composed mainly of epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin gallate) has shown positive activities against skin aging, including significant suppression of melanin production, potent antioxidant activities, and significant matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) inhibition (MMP2 is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of the extracellular collagen matrix). The study results have shown that green tea is a functional plant for utilisation as an anti-skin aging agent in the natural remedies, including food, health, and cosmetic products.[2:2]

Collagen Production

EGCG can suppress fibroblast proliferation and collagen production.[2:3]

Collagen is produced in the fibroblasts of the human dermis and is essential for healthy, firm skin.

Hyperpigmentation

Green tea may have potential as a pigment reducing agent with additional skin anti-aging properties.[2:4]

Hyperpigmentation in Caucasian and Asian skin is markedly associated with photoaging, a major type of extrinsic aging caused by exposure to UV irradiation.[2:5]

The phenolic constituents in green tea, including EGCG and gallic acid, have been shown to inhibit the pigment synthesis and tyrosinase expression.[2:6]

The decreased melanin production of green tea was mediated via the inhibitory effect of two melanogenic enzyme activities, tyrosinase and TRP-2, in the melanin biosynthesis pathway.[2:7]

Disease / Symptom Treatment

Diabetes

Green tea extract contains catechins which have anti-diabetic properties.[7]

Glucose Regulation

(Carbohydrate Digestion, Glucosidase inhibitor) The Catechins within Green Tea Extract exhibit a potent inhibition of α-glucosidase activity and moderate inhibition on α-amylase (these are glucosidases required for starch digestion). The overall effect of inhibition is to help reduce the flow of glucose from complex dietary carbohydrates into the bloodstream, diminishing the postprandial effect of starch consumption on blood glucose levels.[7:1]

Infections

Camellia sinensis extract shows high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria.[8]

Heart Disease

Helps reduce the Risk of Heart Attack.

Cardiomyapthy

Green Tea Extract Improves Heart Muscle and May Help Treat Cardiomyopathies by Improving Mitochondrial Function.[5:1] [6:1]

Long-term in vivo administration of green tea catechin extract (GTE) resulted in an improvement of heart cell mechanical properties.

  • This was measured by a significant increase in hyperdynamic cardiomyocyte contractility (an increase in the rate of shortening and re-lengthening of heart muscle cells, more specifically the fraction of shortening due to the amplitude of calcium transient, and the rate of cytosolic calcium removal).

Green Tea Extract supplementation has been shown to improve cardiomyocyte mechanics and intracellular calcium dynamics.

Cellular bioenergetics were found to be significantly improved:

  • This study measured the maximal mitochondrial respiration rate and the cellular ATP level.
    • The improvement of mitochondrial function was associated with increased levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes.
    • The cellular mitochondrial mass was unchanged.
    • Mechanism of action: Green Tea Extract supplementation lowerered the expression of total phospholamban (PLB), which led to an increase of both the phosphorylated-PLB/PLB and the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase/PLB ratios.

Green Tea Extract might be a valuable adjuvant tool for counteracting the occurrence and/or the progression of cardiomyopathies in which mitochondrial dysfunction and alteration of intracellular calcium dynamics constitute early pathogenic factors.

Obesity

EGCG & caffeine induces suppression of fat accumulation.[3:2]

Skin Disease

Skin Cancer

In skin tumors, topical treament or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols or EGCG inhibits chemical carcinogen- or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis.[9]

Keloids

Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) suppresses keloid development without damaging normal skin.[9:1]

EGCG suppresses adhesion-related signaling in Normal Fibroblasts, without cytotoxic or proapoptotic activity.[9:2]

Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) suppresses collagen production and proliferation in keloid fibroblasts via inhibition of the STAT3-signaling pathway.[9:3]

  • Proliferation of Keloid Fibroblasts was more strongly suppressed by EGCG than was Normal Fibroblast proliferation.[9:4]

Keloid Fibroblasts proliferate more rapidly than Normal Fibroblasts. However, the enhanced proliferation of Keloid Fibroblasts was completely inhibited administration of EGCG.[9:5]

In addition, under low-density culture conditions, Keloid Fibroblasts proliferated more rapidly and generated larger colonies than Normal Fibroblasts, but the colony number of Keloid Fibroblasts was reduced by EGCG treatment.[9:6]

  • EGCG more strongly inhibits proliferation of Keloid Fibroblasts than that of Normal Fibroblasts under in vitro culture conditions.[9:7]

EGCG prevents fibroblast outgrowth, collagen overproduction, and abnormal wound healing related to keloid pathology.[9:8]

EGCG suppresses the migratory potential of both normal and Keloid Fibroblasts, but this suppressive effect is greater in Keloid Fibroblasts.[9:9]

These findings indicate that EGCG efficiently suppresses wound healing-related events, such as collagen production, fibroblast outgrowth, and cell migration in Keloid Fibroblasts.[9:10]


  1. Title: An extensive Review of Sunscreen and Suntan Preparations
    Publication: ARC Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (AJPS)
    Date: April 2019
    Study Type: Review
    Author(s): AK Mohiuddin
    Institution(s): World University of Bangladesh
    IPFS: ipfs.io, cloudflare ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎

  2. Title: Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) suppresses collagen production and proliferation in keloid fibroblasts via inhibition of the STAT3-signaling pathway
    Publication: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
    Date: October 2008
    Study Type: Human Study: In Vitro, Animal Study: In Vitro
    Author(s): Gyuman Park, Byung Sun Yoon, Jai-Hee Moon, Joo Young Noh, ChilHwan Oh, Seungkwon You
    Institution(s): Korea University, Seoul, Korea; Chonnam National University, Kwangju, Korea; Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon, Korea
    IPFS: ipfs.io, cloudflare ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎

  3. Title: The combined administration of EGCG and caffeine induces not only suppression of fat accumulation but also anorexigenic action in mice
    Publication: Journal of Functional Foods
    Date: August, 2018
    Study Type: Animal Study: In Vivo
    Author(s): Litong Liu, Kazutoshi Sayama
    Institution(s): Shizuoka University, Japan
    IPFS: ipfs.io, cloudflare ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎

  4. Title: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate remodels apolipoprotein A-I amyloid fibrils into soluble oligomers in the presence of heparin
    Publication: Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Date: May 31, 2018
    Study Type: Human Study: In Vitro
    Author(s): David Townsend, Eleri Hughes, Geoffrey Akien, Katie L. Stewart, Sheena E. Radford, David Rochester, and David A. Middleton
    Institutions: Lancaster University, United Kingdom; Emory University, United States; University of Leeds, United Kingdom
    IPFS: ipfs.io, cloudflare ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎

  5. Title: Long-Term Oral Administration of Theaphenon-E Improves Cardiomyocyte Mechanics and Calcium Dynamics by Affecting Phospholamban Phosphorylation and ATP Production
    Publication: Karger: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
    Date: July 2018
    Study Type: Animal Study: In Vivo
    Author(s): Bocchi L., Savi M., Naponelli V., Vilella R., Sgarbi G., Baracca A., Solaini G., Bettuzzi S., Rizzi F., Stilli D.
    Institution(s): University of Parma, Parma, Italy; Fondazione Umberto Veronesi, Milan, Italy; University of Bologna, Italy; National Institute of Biostructure and Biosystems (INBB), Rome, Italy
    IPFS: ipfs.io, cloudflare ↩︎ ↩︎

  6. Title: Effects of Standardized Green Tea Extract and Its Main Component, EGCG, on Mitochondrial Function and Contractile Performance of Healthy Rat Cardiomyocytes
    Publication: MDPI: Nutrients
    Date: July 2020
    Study Type: Animal Study: In Vivo
    Author(s): Rocchina Vilella, Gianluca Sgarbi, Valeria Naponelli, Monia Savi, Leonardo Bocchi, Francesca Liuzzi, Riccardo Righetti, Federico Quaini, Caterina Frati, Saverio Bettuzzi, Giancarlo Solaini, Donatella Stilli, Federica Rizzi, and Alessandra Baracca
    Institution(s): University of Parma, Italy; University of Bologna, Italy; National Institute of Biostructure and Biosystems (INBB), Rome, Italy
    IPFS: ipfs.io, cloudflare ↩︎ ↩︎

  7. Title: Grape Seed and Tea Extracts and Catechin 3-Gallates Are Potent Inhibitors of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Activity
    Publication: American Chemical Society: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    Date: September 2012
    Study Type: human Study: In Vitro
    Author(s): Meltem Yilmazer-Musa, Anneke M. Griffith, Alexander J. Michels, Erik Schneider, and Balz Frei
    Institution(s): Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA; USANA Health Sciences, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    IPFS: ipfs.io, cloudflare ↩︎ ↩︎

  8. Title: Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria
    Publication: PLOS ONE
    Date: February 26, 2015
    Study Type: Bacterial Study: In Vitro
    Author(s): Amber Farooqui, Adnan Khan, Ilaria Borghetto, Shahana U. Kazmi, Salvatore Rubino, Bianca Paglietti
    Institution(s): University of Sassari, Italy; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; University of Karachi, Pakistan; Shantou University Medical College, Guangdong, China
    IPFS: ipfs.io, cloudflare ↩︎

  9. Title:
    Publication:
    Date:
    Study Type: Animal Study, Commentary, Human Study: In Vitro - In Vivo - In Silico, Human: Case Report, Meta Analysis, Review
    Author(s):
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