Naringenin


Article Outline
  1. 1. Healing Properties
    1. 1.1. Antiadipogenic
      1. 1.1.1. Weight Loss
    2. 1.2. Antiviral
    3. 1.3. Brain Health
    4. 1.4. Chemopreventive
    5. 1.5. DNA Repair
    6. 1.6. Endothelial Health
  2. 2. Disease / Symptom Treatment
    1. 2.1. Diabetes
      1. 2.1.1. Insulin Resistance
    2. 2.2. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
    3. 2.3. Fatty Liver
Keywords:

Naringenin

Healing Properties

Antiadipogenic

Counters adipogenesis (The formation of fatty tissue; lipogenesis).[1]

Weight Loss

A commercial polyphenolic extract from several Citrus fruits (Sinetrol-XPur), containing about 20% of naringenin, was tested in 95 healthy overweight volunteers (BMI ranging from 26 to 29.9 kg/m2). The main overweight-related endpoints were improved after 12-weeks randomized protocol (including waist and hip circumference, abdominal fat, body weight). Moreover, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were all decreased.[1:1]

  • Naringenin promotes carbohydrate metabolism.[1:2]

Antiviral

Naringenin shows a dose-dependent inhibitory effect against dengue virus .[1:3]

  • Naringenin prevents intracellular replication of chikungunya virus.[1:4]
  • Naringenin inhibits assembly and long-term production of infectious hepatitis C virus particles in a dose-dependent manner.[1:5]

Brain Health

Naringenin is able to traverse the blood–brain barrier and to exert diverse neuronal effects

Chemopreventive

DNA Repair

Naringenin has the ability to repair DNA. Cells exposed to naringenin, for a duration of 24h, had a 24% reduction in DNA damages.[1:6]

Endothelial Health

Promotes vascular endothelial growth factor.[2]

  • Naringenin’s ability to improve endothelial function has been well-established.[1:7]
  • Postprandial endothelial dysfunction was reduced, probably through a specific flavanone’s metabolites action on nitric oxide.[1:8]
  • In a very interesting trial, the long-term effect of 340 mL of grapefruit juice/day, containing about 480 μM naringenin glycoside, was investigated on endothelial function. From the 48 healthy menopausal women recruited, arterial stiffness beneficial effects were found 6 months after treatment (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly reduced).[1:9]

Disease / Symptom Treatment

Diabetes

Insulin Resistance

Naringenin potentiates intracellular signaling responses to low insulin doses by sensitizing hepatocytes to insulin.[1:10]

  • Naringin improves overall insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.[3]

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

The Naringenin flavanone has been described to reduce HCV secretion in infected cells by 80%.[1:11]

Fatty Liver

Naringenin impairs lipid accumulation in liver and thereby prevents fatty liver.[1:12]


  1. Title: The Therapeutic Potential of Naringenin: A Review of Clinical Trials
    Author(s): Bahare Salehi, Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Paolo Zucca, Raffaele Pezzani , Natália Martins, and Javad Sharifi-Rad
    Institution(s): Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam 44340847, Iran; Antimicrobial and Biocontrol Agents Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, Ngoa Ekelle, Annex Fac. Sci., Yaounde 812, Cameroon; Department of Medical Parasitology, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61663-335, Iran; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari, Italy; OU Endocrinology, Dept. Medicine (DIMED), University of Padova, via Ospedale 105, 35128 Padova, Italy; AIROB, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca Oncologica di Base, 35128 Padova, Italy; Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal; Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; Zabol Medicinal Plants Research Center, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61615585, Iran; Department of Chemistry, Richardson College for the Environmental Science Complex, The University of Winnipeg, 599 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, MB R3B 2G3, Canada
    Publication: Pharmaceuticals - MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Date: January 2019
    Abstract: Naringenin is a flavonoid belonging to flavanones subclass. It is widely distributed in several Citrus fruits, bergamot, tomatoes and other fruits, being also found in its glycosides form (mainly naringin). Several biological activities have been ascribed to this phytochemical, among them antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiadipogenic and cardioprotective effects. Nonetheless, most of the data reported have been obtained from in vitro or in vivo studies. Although some clinical studies have also been performed, the main focus is on naringenin bioavailability and cardioprotective action. In addition, these studies were done in compromised patients (i.e., hypercholesterolemic and overweight), with a dosage ranging between 600 and 800 μM/day, whereas the effect on healthy volunteers is still debatable. In fact, naringenin ability to improve endothelial function has been well-established. Indeed, the currently available data are very promising, but further research on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects is encouraged to improve both available production and delivery methods and to achieve feasible naringenin-based clinical formulations.
    Link: Source
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  2. Title: Differential angiogenic activities of naringin and naringenin in zebrafish in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro
    Author(s): Linmin Chen, Binrui Yang, Benqin Tanga, Guiy iGong, Hiotong Kam, Cheng Gao, Yan Chen, Ruibing Wang, Simon Ming Yuen Lee
    Institution(s): State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine and Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China; Department of Medical Science, Shunde Polytechnic, Foshan, China
    Publication: Journal of Functional Foods
    Date: 11 September 2018
    Abstract: Naringin, a flavanone glycoside, and naringenin, the aglycone of naringin, are commonly found in the pericarp of citrus fruits and have also been considered as potential bioactive flavanones. In the present study, treatment with naringenin showed an inhibitory effect on SIV formation in zebrafish embryos, which demonstrates its potential anti-angiogenic activity. In a chemically-induced blood vessel loss model in zebrafish, we found that naringin exhibited remarkably pro-angiogenesis activity on the restoration of blood vessel loss, and significantly reversed VRI-induced down-regulation of flt1 mRNA expression. In an in vitro study of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), our results showed that naringin specifically promoted HUVEC migration but not proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that naringin and naringenin have differential angiogenesis activities where naringin, as a novel angiogenic agent, has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for diseases associated with insufficient angiogenesis, such as ischemia heart disease.
    Link: Source
    Citations: ↩︎

  3. Title: Efficacy of bergamot: From anti‐inflammatory and anti‐oxidative mechanisms to clinical applications as preventive agent for cardiovascular morbidity, skin diseases, and mood alterations
    Author(s): Simone Perna Daniele Spadaccini Leonardo Botteri Carolina Girometta Antonella Riva Pietro Allegrini Giovanna Petrangolini Vittoria Infantino Mariangela Rondanelli
    Institution(s): Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Pavia, Italy; Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Zallaq, Bahrain; Research and Development Unit, Indena, Milan, Italy; Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Section of Human Nutrition, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy
    Publication: Food Science & Nutrition
    Date: January 2019
    Abstract: We summarize the effects of bergamot (extract, juice, essential oil, and polyphenolic fraction) on cardiovascular, bone, inflammatory, skin diseases, mood alteration, anxiety, pain, and stress. This review included a total of 31 studies (20 studies on humans with 1709 subjects and 11 in animals (rats and mice)). In humans, bergamot‐derived extract (BE) exerts positive effects on hyperlipidemia with an oral dose from 150 mg to 1000 mg/day of flavonoids administered from 30 to 180 days, demonstrating an effect on body weight and in modulating total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and HDL. Studies in animals confirm promising data on glucose control (500/1000 mg/day of BE with a treatment lasting 30 days) are available in rats. In animals models, bergamot essential oil (BEO, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg daily for 20 weeks) increases bone volume, decreases psoriatic plaques, increases skin collagen content, and promotes hair growth. Bergamot juice (20 mg/kg) is promising in terms of pro‐inflammatory cytokine reduction. In humans, aromatherapy (from 15 to 30 min) does not appear to be useful in order to reduce stress, anxiety, and nausea, compared to placebo. Compared to baseline, BE topical application and BEO aromatherapy reduce blood diastolic and systolic pressure and could have a significant effect on improving mental conditions.
    Link: Source
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