Apples


Article Outline
  1. 1. Healing Properties
    1. 1.1. Antioxidant
    2. 1.2. Antimicrobial
      1. 1.2.1. Antiviral
        1. 1.2.1.1. Anti-influenza (flu virus)
    3. 1.3. Hepatoprotective (antihepatotoxicity)
    4. 1.4. Reducing cholesterol
  2. 2. Disease / Symptom Treatment
    1. 2.1. Heart Disease
      1. 2.1.1. Coronary artery disease
        1. 2.1.1.1. Atherosclerosis
    2. 2.2. Lung Disease
      1. 2.2.1. Asthma
      2. 2.2.2. Pleuritis (Pleurisy)
      3. 2.2.3. Dyspnea
    3. 2.3. Cough suppressant (anti-cough)
    4. 2.4. Acute respiratory infection
      1. 2.4.1. Covid-19 (Novel Coronavirus)
  3. 3. Composition
    1. 3.1. Bioactive substances and their presence in different parts of the plant[1:9]
    2. 3.2. List of flavonoids isolated from apples[1:10]
    3. 3.3. List of phenolic acids isolated from apples[1:11]
    4. 3.4. List of antioxidants identified in apples:

Apples (Malus domestica) are one of the most significant fruits in all of the world.[1]

Healing Properties

Antioxidant

Many types of antioxidant compounds are present in apple fruit and apple peels.[1:1]

Apples contain a large number, and high levels, of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity.[1:2]

Polyphenols are the chief antioxidant biomolecules contained in apples. There is a correlation between the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity among all the varieties of apple.[1:3]

Antimicrobial

Antiviral

Anti-influenza (flu virus)

Hepatoprotective (antihepatotoxicity)

Helps prevent damage to the liver.

Apple polyphenols have the potential to be hepatoprotective and inhibit hepatic steatosis.[1:4]

Reducing cholesterol

Disease / Symptom Treatment

Heart Disease

A reduced risk of cardiovascular disease has been associated with apple consumption especially in women.[2]

Coronary artery disease

Atherosclerosis

Phytosterols in apples have been shown to help prevent coronary atherosclerosis and treat heart disease.[1:5]

Lung Disease

Apple consumption has been positively associated with general pulmonary health.[2:1]

Asthma

Apple consumption has been inversely linked with asthma.[2:2]

Apple and pear intake has been associated with a decreased risk of asthma and a decrease in bronchial hypersensitivity.[2:3]

Pleuritis (Pleurisy)

Apples have been shown to be effective in pleurisy (inflammation of the tissues that line the lungs and chest cavity).[2:4]

Dyspnea

Apples have been shown to be effective in treating and preventing dyspnea and shortness of breath.[2:5]

Cough suppressant (anti-cough)

Apple consumption has been shown to be effective in treating and preventing coughing.[2:6]

Acute respiratory infection

Apples are a medicinal food with therapeutic effect in treating infections of the respiratory tract.[2:7]

Covid-19 (Novel Coronavirus)

Apples have been considered as part of a therapeutic diet appropriate to help treat respiratory infections similar to COVID-19.[2:8]

Composition

A large number of bioactive substances including polyphenols, polysaccharides, plant sterols, pentacyclic triterpenes, and organic acids have been found in apples.[1:6]

Apples contains zinc.[1:7]

Apples contain phytosterols such as sitosterol and daucosterol.[1:8]

Bioactive substances and their presence in different parts of the plant[1:9]

Bioactive Substance Presence
Cinnamic acid species peel
Chlorogenic acid peel, pulp, kernel, leaf
Caffeic acid peel, pulp
Ferulic acid pulp, leaf
P-coumaric acid pulp
Caffeoylquinic acid pulp and skin
P-coumarylquinic acid pulp and skin
Cinnamic acid leaf
(+)-Catechin peel, pulp, kernel
(-)-Epicatechin peel, pulp, kernel
Proantho Cyanidins peel, pulp, leaf
Flavonols
Quercetin and quercetin glycosides peel
Anthocyanins peel
Phytosterol peel
Triterpenoids peel
Pectin peel, pulp, root, stem, leaf
Carbohydrate seed, pulp, leaf
Amino acid, peptide and protein ingredients seed, pulp
Oil composition seed, pulp
Endogenous hormone Plant

List of flavonoids isolated from apples[1:10]

  • Catechins
  • Epicatechin
  • Proanthocyanidins B1
  • Proanthocyanidins B2
  • Proanthocyanidins B5
  • Proanthocyanidins C1
  • Proanthocyanidin tetramer
  • Proanthocyanidin pentamer
  • Proanthocyanidin hexamer
  • Proanthocyanidin heptamer
  • Proanthocyanidin octamer
  • Phlorizin
  • Phloretin
  • Quercetin
  • 3,5,7,3 ‘, 4’-pentaflavonol-3-o-xyloside
  • 3,5,7,3 ‘, 4’-pentaflavonol-3-o-rhamnoside
  • 3,5,7,3 ‘, 4’-pentaflavonol-3-o-galactoside
  • 3,5,7,3 ‘, 4’-pentaflavonol-3-o-glucoside
  • 3,5,7,3 ‘, 4’-pentaflavonol-3-o-arabinoside
  • 3,5,7,3 ‘, 4’-pentaflavonol-3-o-rutinoside
  • Anthocyanidins
  • Ideain (cyanidin-3-galactoside)

List of phenolic acids isolated from apples[1:11]

  • Salicylic acid
  • P-coumaric acyl quinic acid
  • D-(-)-quinic acid
  • Chlorogenic acid
  • Caffeic acid
  • Ferulic acid
  • 2®-hydroxybutanedioic acid
  • 2®-hydroxybutanedioic acid 1-methyl ester
  • Malonic acid
  • Maleic acid
  • D-(-)-quinic acid
  • Chlorogenic acid
  • Caffeic acid
  • Ferulic acid
  • 2®-hydroxybutanedioic acid
  • 2®-hydroxybutanedioic acid 1-methyl ester
  • Malonic acid
  • Maleic acid
  • P-cournaric acid
  • Cinnamic acid
  • Protocatechuic acid (PCA)
  • Hydroxycinnamic acid

List of antioxidants identified in apples:

  • catechin
  • chlorogenic acid
  • epicatechin
  • cyanidin-3-galactoside
  • procyanidin
  • coumaric acid
  • gallic acid
  • phloridzin
  • quercetin-3 galactoside
  • quercetin-3-rhamnoside.

  1. Title: Malus domestica: A Review on Nutritional Features, Chemical Composition, Traditional and Medicinal Value
    Publication: MDPI - Plants
    Date: October 2020
    Study Type: Review
    Author(s): Jiri Patocka, Kanchan Bhardwaj, Blanka Klimova, Eugenie Nepovimova, Qinghua Wu, Marco Landi, Kamil Kuca, Martin Valis, and Wenda Wu
    Institution(s): University Hospital, Czech Republic; University of South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic; Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, India; Charles University and University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Yangtze University, China; University of Pisa, Italy; Nanjing Agricultural University, China
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  2. Title: Hospital diet for COVID-19, an acute respiratory infectious disease: An evidence-based Protocol of a Clinical Trial
    Publication: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
    Date: October 2020
    Study Type: Human: Case Report, Meta Analysis, Review
    Author(s): Masoud Moslemi Fard, Narjess Goeji, Reza Ghadimi, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Hoda Shirafkan, Seyyed Ali Mozaffarpur
    Institution(s): Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
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